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The Andhra Ikshvakus were originally feudatories of the Satavahanas and bore the title Mahatalavara. Although the Purana state that seven kings ruled for 100 years in total, the names of only four of them are known from inscriptions. Vashishthiputra Sri Santamula (Santamula I), the founder of the line, performed the Asvamedha, Agnihotra, Agnistoma and Vajapeya sacrifices. Santamula performed the Ashvamedha sacrifices with a view to proclaiming his independent and imperial status. It became a common practice among the rulers of subsequent dynasties to perform the Ashvamedha sacrifice in token of their declaration of independent status. From this fact it can be inferred that it was Santamula I who first declared his independence and established the Ikshvaku dynasty. Santamula's mother was Vashishthi, as is evident from his name. Virapurushadatta was the son and successor of Santamula through his wife Madhari. He had a sister named Adavi Santisri. He took a queen from the Saka family of Ujjainand gave his daughter in marriage to a Chutu prince.

Virapurushadata's son Ehuvula Santamula (Santamula II) ruled after a short Abhira interregnum. Rudrapurushadatta was the name of an Ikshvaku ruler mentioned in inscriptions from Gurajala in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. He may have been a son of Ehuvula Santamula. Rudrapurushadatta ruled for over 11 years. He was probably the last important ruler of the Ikshvaku family. According to the Puranas there were three more unknown rulers after him. The Abhiras may have put an end to the Ikshvakus about AD 278.

The Andhra Ikshvakus were originally feudatories of the Satavahanas and bore the title Mahatalavara. Although the Purana state that seven kings ruled for 100 years in total, the names of only four of them are known from inscriptions. Vashishthiputra Sri Santamula (Santamula I), the founder of the line, performed the Asvamedha, Agnihotra, Agnistoma and Vajapeya sacrifices. Santamula performed the Ashvamedha sacrifices with a view to proclaiming his independent and imperial status. It became a common practice among the rulers of subsequent dynasties to perform the Ashvamedha sacrifice in token of their declaration of independent status. From this fact it can be inferred that it was Santamula I who first declared his independence and established the Ikshvaku dynasty. Santamula's mother was Vashishthi, as is evident from his name. Virapurushadatta was the son and successor of Santamula through his wife Madhari. He had a sister named Adavi Santisri. He took a queen from the Saka family of Ujjainand gave his daughter in marriage to a Chutu prince.

Virapurushadata's son Ehuvula Santamula (Santamula II) ruled after a short Abhira interregnum. Rudrapurushadatta was the name of an Ikshvaku ruler mentioned in inscriptions from Gurajala in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. He may have been a son of Ehuvula Santamula. Rudrapurushadatta ruled for over 11 years. He was probably the last important ruler of the Ikshvaku family. According to the Puranas there were three more unknown rulers after him. The Abhiras may have put an end to the Ikshvakus about AD 278.

In an effort to protect the interests of the Telugu people of Madras state, Amarajeevi Potti Sriramulu attempted to force the government of Madras Presidency to listen to public demands to separate the Telugu-speaking areas of Rayalaseema and Coastal Andhra from Madras Presidency to form the Andhra state. He went on a lengthy fast, and only stopped when Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru promised to form Andhra state. However, there was no further movement on the issue for a long time. Potti Sriramulu started fasting again on 19 October 1952 in Maharshi Bulusu Sambamurthy's house in Madras to promote statehood for Andhra. He started off without fanfare but gradually caught people's attention, despite the disavowal of the fast by the Andhra Congress committee. The government of the day did not make a clear statement about the formation of a new state, however, despite several strikes and demonstrations by the Telugus. Shortly after midnight of 15 December 1952, Potti Sriramulu died, giving his life trying to achieve his objective.

In his death procession, people shouted slogans praising his sacrifice. When the procession reached Mount Road, thousands of people joined and raised banners hailing Sriramulu. Later they went into a frenzy and began destroying public property. The news spread like wildfire and created an uproar in distant places such as Vizianagaram,Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Eluru, Guntur, Tenali, Ongole and Nellore. Seven people were killed by police gunfire in Anakapalle and Vijayawada. The popular agitation continued for three or four days, disrupting normal life in Madras and Andhra regions. On 19 December 1952, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru announced the formation of a separate state for Telugu-speaking people of Madras Presidency. House no. 126, Royapettah high road, Mylapore, Madras is the address where Potti Sriramulu died, and it has been preserved as a monument of importance by the state government of Andhra Pradesh.

After an election campaign, on 1 October 1953, 11 districts in the Telugu-speaking portion of Madras State (Coastal Andhra and Rayala Seema) voted to become the new state of Andhra State, with Kurnool as the capital. Andhra Kesari Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu became first Chief Minister of the Telugu state thus formed. The formation of linguistic states was the single most important event in the history of the South Indian languages, since it provided an opportunity for these languages to develop independently, each of them now having a state to support it.

In December 1953, the States Reorganization Commission was appointed to prepare for the creation of states on linguistic lines. Following popular demand, the commission recommended the partition of Hyderabad state and the merging of its Marathi-speaking region with Bombay state, its Kannada-speaking region with Mysore state, and its Telugu-speaking region with Andhra Pradesh. The commission did not favour an immediate merger of the Telugu-speaking region of Hyderabad state with Andhra state, despite their common language. Paragraph 378 of the SRC report said, "One of the principal causes of opposition of Vishalandhra also seems to be the apprehension felt by educated people of the coastal areas and educationally backward Telugu speaking people in Hyderabad State."